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apa default asc no 4017
Hakami, N. A. M. (2018). An Investigation of the Motivational Factors Influencing Learners’ Intentions to Continue Using Arabic MOOCs [Phd, University of Southampton, University Library]. https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/418819/
for a suspension of this prior knowledge in favour of the greatest possible openness to the particular meanings and rele- vances of actors. (n.d.).
Although in qualitative methodology the fact of theory-driven observation is also unques- tioned, there is a predominant rejection of hypotheses formulated in advance: precisely because there is an awareness that knowledge influences observation and action, researchers wish to avoid being ‘fixed’ by the hypotheses on particular aspects that they can only obtain ‘in advance’ from their own area of (scientific and everyday) relevance, but whose ‘fit’ with the meaning patterns of the individuals being investigated cannot be guaranteed in advance. (n.d.).
and the unavoidable selectivity of every kind of research. (n.d.).
For quantitatively oriented methodologists the formulation of hypotheses at the beginning of an investigation is an indispensable means of subjecting to systematic control the inevitable theoretical loading of every kind of observation. (n.d.).
link theoretical frameworks, ques- tions, research, generalization and presentational goals with the methods used and resources avail- able under the focus of goal-achievement. (n.d.).
Research designs may ultimately be described as the means of achieving the goals of the research. (n.d.).
Figure 4.1.2 Components of qualitative research design. (n.d.).
selection of textual contexts,. (n.d.).
draw up lists of priorities related to the research questions that make it possible to select and reduce the categories. (n.d.).
After phases of open coding (see 5.13) there is often an exces- sive quantity of codes or categories. (n.d.).
The same is true of the suggestions made by Strauss (1987: 266), O’Connell and Kowal (1995a, see 5.9) and others that only parts of interviews be tran- scribed, and only as precisely as is actually required by the questions of the particular inves- tigation. (n.d.).
an interview of around 90 minutes will need as much time again for locating interview-partners, organizing appointments, and travel. (n.d.).
One factor that is frequently undervalued in the development of a research design is the avail- able resource. (n.d.).
if the goal is not to do with theory development but rather with the evaluation of institutional practice. One e. (n.d.).
are more appropriate. (n.d.).
this, theoretical sampling is considered to be the royal way for qualitative studies. Frequently, however, other selection strategies. (n.d.).
when new fields are being inves- tigated and the theoretical constructs and con- cepts are relatively undeveloped. (n.d.).
as appropriate when a large measure of experience is available of research in different fields. (n.d.).
Loose designs are characterized by somewhat broadly defined concepts and have, in the first instance, little in the way of fixed methodologi- cal procedures. Miles and Huberman see this type of design. (n.d.).
Tighter designs make it easier to decide what data or extracts from the data are relevant to the investigation and what is not relevant, and they also make it easier, for example, to compare and summarize data from different interviews or observations. (n.d.).
priate when researchers lack experience of qualitative research, when the research oper- ates on the basis of narrowly defined con- structs, and when it is restricted to the investigation of particular relationships in familiar contexts. (n.d.).
research designs are deter- mined by narrowly restricted questions and strictly determined selection procedures. (n.d.).
For the development of a typology, for exam- ple. (n.d.).
it is necessary not only to use the target selection of cases, but to include counter- examples and to undertake case-contrasts in addition to case-comparisons (cf. Kelle and Kluge 1999: 40ff.). (n.d.).
To increase the theoretical generalizability, the use of different methods (triangulation, see 4.5, 4.6, 4.7) for the investi- gation of a small number of cases is often more informative than the use of one method for the largest possible number of cases. (n.d.).
What is more informative is the question of the theoretical generalizability of the results obtained. Here the number of indivi- duals or situations studied is less decisive than the differences between cases involved (maxi- mal variation) or the theoretical scope of the case interpretations. (n.d.).
In qualitative research a distinction must be made between numerical and theoretical gener- alization. (n.d.).
It is therefore preferable to clarify which of these dimensions is the decisive one. (n.d.).
the phenomena being studied and the research question really require a comparison according to gender, age, town or country, East or West, and so on? (n.d.).
In compara- tive studies there is the question of the principal dimensions according to which particular phe- nomena are to be compare. (n.d.).
is the target a detailed analysis of as many facets as possible, or is it a comparison or a typology of different cases, situ- ations and individuals, and so on? (n.d.).
Strauss (1987: 22) character- izes the latter as ‘generative questions’. (n.d.).
But on the other hand, in the course of the project questions become more and more concrete, more focused, and they are also nar- rowed and revised (cf. Flick 2002: 64). (n.d.).
clearly and unambiguously as possible. (n.d.).
The research question of a qualitative investiga- tion is one of the decisive factors in its success or failure. The way in which it is formulated exerts a strong influence on the design of the study. (n.d.).
a design planned in advance is translated into concrete procedures or else, while in process, the design is consti- tuted and modified by virtue of the decisions in favour of particular alternatives. (n.d.).
can make a choice between a number of alternatives at various points in the process – from questions to data collection and analysis and ultimately to presentation of results. (n.d.).
The process of qualitative research may be described as a sequence of decisions (Flick 1995, 2002). (n.d.).
interesting process or state at later times of data collection. (n.d.).
longitudinal studies, which also analyse an. (n.d.).
In contrast to this, a large part of qualitative research focuses on snapshots: different mani- festations of the expertise that exists in a parti- cular field at the time of the research are collected in interviews (see 5.2, 5.3) and com- pared to one another. (n.d.).
research (see 3.6, 3.7, 5.11) is an example of a retrospective research design in which, retro- spectively from the point in time when the research is carried out, certain events and processes are analysed in respect of their mean- ing for individual or collective life-histories. (n.d.).
single case–comparative study represents one axis according to which the basic design of qualitative research may be classi- fied. (n.d.).
but rather a multiplicity of cases with regard to particular excerpts: (n.d.).