Protected: Theoretical Foundations of Design Thinking Part I: John E. Arnold’s Creative Thinking Theories
Design thinking is acknowledged as a thriving innovation practice plus something more, something in the line of a deep understanding of innovation processes. At the same time, quite how and why design thinking works – in scientific terms – appeared an open question at first. Over recent years, empirical research has achieved great progress in illuminating the principles that make design thinking successful. Lately, the community began to explore an additional approach. Rather than setting up novel studies, investigations into the history of design thinking hold the promise of adding systematically to our comprehension of basic principles. This chapter makes a start in revisiting design thinking history with the aim of explicating scientific understandings that inform design thinking practices today. It offers a summary of creative thinking theories that were brought to Stanford Engineering in the 1950s by John E. Arnold.